When performing machining, the selection of blanks not only affects the economics of blank manufacturing, but also affects the economics of machining. Therefore, when selecting blanks, both mechanical processing and economic factors must be considered. How to choose the blank material for machining?
The rough parts with complex shapes should be manufactured by casting methods. At present, most castings are made of sand casting, which is divided into wooden mold manual molding and metal mold machine molding. Wooden mold manual moulding castings have low precision, large machining surface allowance and low production efficiency. They are suitable for single-piece small batch production or large-scale parts casting. The metal mold machine has high molding productivity and high casting precision, but the equipment cost is high, and the weight of the casting is also limited. It is suitable for mass production of small and medium castings. Secondly, a small number of small castings with higher quality requirements can be used in special casting, such as pressure casting, centrifugal manufacturing and investment casting.
For steel parts with high mechanical strength requirements, forging blanks are generally used. There are two types of forgings: free forging and die forging. Free forging forgings can be obtained by manual forging (small blanks), mechanical hammer forging (medium blanks) or press forging (large blanks). This forging has low precision, low productivity, large machining allowance, and the structure of the parts must be simple, suitable for single-piece and small-batch production, and the manufacture of large forgings. The precision and surface quality of die forgings are better than that of free forgings, and the shape of forgings can be more complicated, which can reduce the machining allowance. The production efficiency of die forging is much higher than that of free forging, but it requires special equipment and forging dies, so it is suitable for medium and small forgings with larger batches.
According to the cross-sectional shape, the profile can be divided into: round steel, square steel, hexagonal steel, flat steel, angle steel, channel steel, I-beam and other special cross-section profiles. There are two types of profiles: hot-rolled and cold-drawn. The hot-rolled profile has low precision, but the price is cheap, and it is used for the blank of general parts; the cold-drawn profile is small in size, high in accuracy, easy to realize automatic feeding, but the price is higher, and it is mostly used for large batch production, suitable for automatic Machine tool processing.
4. Welding parts
Welding parts are combined parts obtained by welding. The advantages of welding are simple manufacturing, short cycle time, and material saving. The disadvantages are poor vibration resistance and large deformation, and can only be machined after aging treatment.
The above 4 types are common blanks during machining. In addition, there are other blanks such as stamping parts, cold extruded parts, powder metallurgy, etc. Large mechanical processing plants should choose suitable blanks according to the processing requirements when performing machining. , So as to make the processing more effective.
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