“1) Using water, carbon and biogas as raw materials. Under the catalysis of iron and manganese, the solar thermal heat source below 800~1600℃ can produce methanol, oxygen and liquid fertilizer, and obtain electricity. (2) This paper briefly introduces the basic principle and production process of optical liquid technology. Discuss the technical route of implementation from the perspective of resource characteristics.
According to research, the process of photosynthesis is carried out in a catalyst containing manganese. This process is a chemical reaction carried out at normal temperature and pressure. If the chemical reaction conditions are improved, it is equivalent to artificial photosynthesis. The research of this paper is carried out under this guiding idea.
The background of this fundamental principle is in another article “Solar thermal power generation and a method to produce liquid sunlight”. The basic principle is to use endothermic chemical reactions instead of photosynthesis to convert solar energy into chemical energy. It’s a method of using biomass, sunlight to generate electricity, light fluids and fertilizers. It follows the laws of the natural carbon cycle.
1. The basic principle of “LLL”
1.1, “LLL” basic chemical reaction introduction
1.1.1. Reaction process
The chemical reaction process is composed of a series of endothermic and exothermic chemistry. The main reaction is as follows.
Figure 1 Basic principle diagram
As shown in the figure above, this is a series of chemical reactions consisting of manganese, iron and their complexes under a solar heat source. The overall reaction equation for this process is as follows:
C+H2O(g)+ CH4(g)+ CO2(g) → CH4O(L)+O2(g) (Formula 1)
The condition of this reaction is that under the catalysis of manganese, iron and other substances at the highest temperature of 1600 °C, by controlling different ratios of feedstock raw materials, the feedstock components are changed alternately to obtain a composite gas rich in CO or H2. The composite gas is introduced to the water steam turbine for power generation as heat transfer, the temperature is lowered to 400°C, and the heat is transferred to the methanol steam turbine for power generation, and the temperature is lowered to 200°C. A composite gas with a volume fraction of more than 20% CO is obtained, and another composite gas with a volume fraction of H2 more than 40% is obtained. Under the action of the catalytic bed at 200~250℃, 80~90% of H2 and CO are converted into CH4O. After CH4O is compressed to 6~8MPa, it becomes liquid and gas is separated. Liquid methanol is pumped into methanol boiler steam to generate electricity.
1.1.2, principle discussion
From the above formula, it can be known that different raw material components require different energy. Methanol can be obtained from all products.The components that require the least energy are as follows
C+2H2O(g)+ CH4(g)= 2CH4O(L) (Formula 2)
At 25°C and 101kPa, the theoretical net calorific values of carbon, hydrogen, methane and methanol are 33MJ/KG, 143MJ/KG, 56MJ/KG and 23MJ/KG. The exothermic reaction process of room temperature combustion is as follows:
The left side of formula 2 assumes that there are 12KG of carbon, 36KG of water, and 16KG of methane (room temperature, 1 atmosphere pressure), and 64KG of methanol is obtained. If charcoal and methane are burned directly. The calorific value is 1292MJ. The calorific value after photo-liquid treatment is 1472MJ. An increase of 180MJ means a 14% increase in methane and charcoal energy. 1KG methanol requires 2.82MJ energy.
The processes with the highest energy demands are
8H2O(L)+ 2CO2(g)= 2CH4O(L)+5O2(g) (Formula 3)
The process requires a minimum energy of 2616MJ. 1KG methanol requires 40.88MJ of energy.
Optimal energy demand and optimal output are methanol and charcoal. The optimal reaction of the photo-liquid process is (in the case of biogas methane:carbon dioxide=6:4).
4C+16H2O(g)+6CH4(g)+ 4CO2(g) =14CH4O(L)+5O2(g) (Formula 4)
This reaction requires a minimum of 11734 MJ of energy. 1KG methanol requires 26.2MJ of energy.
1.1.3. Route selection
At all possible, lowering the maximum reaction temperature to 400°C to 600°C would make the system more economically competitive. Manganese dioxide will release oxygen at 530~560℃, and the reaction start temperature of carbon and carbon dioxide is 480℃. This goal is achievable. But the process can be lengthy unless a very efficient catalyst is found. Otherwise, the reliable method is still the iron-manganese reaction vessel, and the different components are alternately fed.
In the case of very good sunshine conditions, it is the best to choose formula 3 as the main reaction. In the case of poor sunshine conditions, formula 2 is chosen as the main reaction. In places with abundant biomass resources, Equation 4 is chosen as the main reaction.
The best output is methanol, biogas residue carbon. The annual reserves of biomass to methanol are 2000~8000 tons/square kilometer. The required area for the light-liquid concentrating area of 1 square kilometer of biomass is no more than 1 hectare. The cost of biomass accumulation in 1 square kilometer is very low. It can be obtained that the annual area yield density of the optical liquid factory is 0.2 to 0.8 million tons / hectare.
The concentrating device is the largest cost component of the entire optical liquid production, accounting for about 40~50% of the solar thermal power generation. When the maximum reaction temperature drops to 400°C to 600°C, the trough concentrator can be used directly, and the cost will be greatly reduced. (The authors have designed a low-cost concentrator system to be announced in a few months).
In the case of direct reaction and catalysis of ferromanganese up to 1600 °C, the economy of this scheme is greatly reduced.
2. Demonstration and simulation experiment process of the basic principle of “LLL”
2.1. The current stage of “LLL”
The demonstration of the principle and process is still in progress, and the simulation has just started. Due to the author’s lack of knowledge and lack of ability. It couldn’t be done in such a short time. However, all the author’s current study and research results show that this scheme is not only feasible in principle, but also easy to implement in technology, and has the potential to directly compete with solar photovoltaic, coal, oil and natural gas economically.
Maybe ten years from now, humans will use energy like water, with electrical wiring, water pipes, and light-fluid pipes in the home. The easy availability and wide distribution of optical liquid will enable the concept of equality for all to be supported by a better material basis and economic structure.
In terms of environment, if this system can be realized. The environment where human beings live will be like a virgin forest without pollution.
But no one believes in this process, and no one studies it. I can’t do such a huge system by myself.
The “LLL” light-liquid scheme is worth studying and researching.